Ximena Antunez de Mayolo

Allied Leaders

George C. Marshall

George Catlett Marshall was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania on December 31, 1880. Nicknamed Flick, Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1901, as he was not nominated by his Congressmen to the Military Academy at West Point. When first assigned to the Philippines, he developed his characteristic self-discipline and study habits. Marshall was Chief of Operations of the First Army during World Way I and received prestige for his excellent participation. Following World War I he was Assistant Commandant for Instruction of the Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, While here his method of giving power to his subordinates yet intervening only when they failed affected not only the instruction methods of the school but also many of World War II's generals.

After serving as Chief of the War Department's War Plans Division(1938), Marshall became Army Chief of Staff on September 1, 1939. In this position Marshall brought the preparation for World War II into full gear. Four years after assuming control, the army of 200,000 men had grown into an army of 8.3 million prepared men. Marshall was also a strong advocate of the Allied invasion through the English Channel, the Normandy Invasion. Among his plans for the invasion was the use of air power. The importance of air power was something that Marshall advocated throughout the war, Marshall was named general of the Army in 1944.

The B17 Flying Fortress, one of the lynchpins of
Marshall's plans in the Normandy Invasion.

After retiring as Army Chief of Staff in 1945, Marshall became Secretary of State on January 8, 1947. Among his accomplishments was the Marshall Plan. This plan for European economic aid was key in the recovery of Europe's former position. Marshall resigned from the State Department in 1949 due to ill health. Yet in 1950 he was placed in command of the Department of Defense, during which time he helped develop the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Following this Marshall became the first soldier to win the nobel Peace Prize in 1953. General George C, Marshall died on October 16, 1959 in Washington D.C..

Omar N. Bradley

Omar Nelson Bradley was born in a log cabin in Clark, Missouri. Born on February 12 1893, he was the only child of John Smith Bradley and Sara Elizabeth Bradley. Despite an impoverished youth, he entered the Military Academy at West Point in 1911. He found that he enjoyed the rigorous structured life, but focused more on sports than on academics. He graduated on June 12, 1915 as a second lieutenant of infantry. His fellow graduates would one day join him in battle in World War II. While at Fort George Wright as a member of the 14th infantry Regiment, Bradley met Edwin Forrest Harding. Harding had a large impact on Bradley:s life.

Much to Bradley's exasperation, the 14th Regiment spent World War I in the United States, first policing the copper mines in Montana and later on organizing Camp Dodge near Des Moines, Iowa. Following World War I, Bradley continued to study and teach at West Point, the Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, the prestigious Command and general Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and the Army War College. During this time he met George C. Marshall, probably his most influential colleague. Marshall believed in not interfering with the jobs he gave men as long as they were done well. Omar Bradley took this philosophy to heart when he achieved power. After a highly acclaimed period in charge of the Infantry School, Bradley took command of the 82nd Infantry two months after Pearl Harbor. While in charge of the mainly drafted 82nd Infantry, Bradley instilled rigorous physical and military training to prepare them for war.

General Marshall then assigned Bradley 28th Infantry, Coast Guard, in order to train them as he had done with to the 82nd Infantry. In 1943 he was sent to North Africa to aid Dwight D. Eisenhower. He was then placed in charge of the 2nd Corps in the North African campaign under General Patton.

In 1944 Bradley was given the command of the U.S. 1st Army. Under British Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery he aided in the creation of Operation Overload. During this time he was among few Allied senior commanders that felt that airborne landings were crucial in order to limit enemy access to the coast and to confuse the enemy. The attack was to be led by the 29th Infantry Division and on Omaha and Utah Beach, the 1st and 4th Infantry Division respectively. The landing at Utah Beach went relatively well in stark contrast to that on Omaha. The disastrous Omaha landing and the failed aerial landing brought Bradley to almost order the evacuation of troops. But American commanders managed to establish a foothold on the beaches.

Bradley moved the first army headquarters on shore on June 9. He proceeded to order troops to Cherbourg as part of the Breakout plan. When these attempts failed Bradley designed a one corps attack on St. Lo with aerial aid. Although difficult, this plan eventually allowed Allied troops to advance to the German fronter. In August of 1944 Bradley was placed in charge of the 12th Army Group, the largest force ever placed under one American Group Commander. His leadership was like that of Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander, as he exercised close control of his armies This was done by assigning broad missions ond then monitoring operations, and only interfering when needed. When German forces reinforced their units, Bradley reinforced the VII corps and brought in strong air assistance. He went further as he planned to encircle the bulk of the German forces near the Rhine. This battle marked the end of fighting in Germany. After sending Hedges and Patton after the retreating enemy, Bradley focused on supplying troops that were leaving the beaches to travel further inland. Bradley's success continued as he managed to cross the Rhine and break through to the Ruhr Valley. He continued until the end of the war, as highly valued asset to Eisenhower. Eisenhower saw him as the "master tactician of our forces.

Following the war, in 1945 he was appointed s head of the Veteran's Administration. In 1948 he became the Army's Chief of Staff, following Eisenhower's path. Bradley was the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and then on September 22, 1950 was given five stars as General of the Army. General Bradley died on April 8, 1981.

George S. Patton

George Smith Patton Jr. was born in San Gabriel, California on November 11, 1885. An outstanding general, he was known for his discipline and toughness, achieving him the nickname "Old Blood and Guts." Patton graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1909. During his studies Patton became fascinated with leaders of the Civil War, much like general Omar Bradley. Before World War I, he served in Mexico (1916-17) and England(l917). During World War I, Patton developed his skill for tank warfare. In November, 1917, he was assigned to the Tank Corps of the United States Army. Patton organized and trained the 1st tank Brigade. Following the St. Mihiel drive, and being wounded, Patton was awarded the Distinauished Service Cross and the Distinauished Service Medal.

During Normandy General Patton was placed in charge of a fictitious group in order to lead the Germans to believe that the Invasion would take place in the Pas-de-Calais region. After Normandy he was placed in charge of the Third Army. Two months after the landing his army was sent to pursue the breakout effort in Avanches. Patton's army pushed through Mayenne, Laval, le Mans, Rums, and Chalons, passing Paris until they finally had to stop at Nancy and Metz.

Patton's forces relieved Bastogne in the battle of the Bulge and eventually pushed towards the German border. By the end of January 1945, he had reached Czechoslovakia and his army finally freed Czechoslovakia by the end of the war. Following the end of the war Patton was removed from his position as head of the third army due to his criticisms of U.S.policy of denazification. After being injured in a car accident, Patton died in Heidelberg on December 21, 1945. Patton was a general of showmanship and strict discipline. Yet despite his severity and flamboyance, his soldiers revered him as a genius in tank warfare.

Courtney H. Hodges

Courtney Hicks Hedges was born on January 5, 1887 in Perig, Georgia. After enlisting in the Army in 1906 he served in Mexico (1916), in France during World War I and in Germany(l919). Following World War I he studied at the prestigious Command and General Staff School in Fort Leavenworth. It is a prestigious school, through which an officer who hoped to ascend in the armed forces would enter. Like General Bradley, Hodges trained troops at Fort Benning, Georgia. After being commander of the 3rd Army he became deputy under General Omar Bradley for the Normandy Invasion.

Following D-Day, Hodges succeeded Bradley as commander of the 1st Army. He led the ist Army to liberate Paris, Luxembourg and Belgium, being the first to reach Germany's frontier. The German counter offensive in Ardennes was dutifully fought off by the ist Army. By March of 1945 the 1st Army had joined in the effort to encircle the German forces in the Ruhr. Following the end of the war in the West he was transferred to Japan, an d later retired from the Army in 1949.

Works Cited

"Bradley, Omar N."1998 Britannica Online,Online, Netscape: 15 March 1999. http://normandy.eb.com/normandy/people.html

Holden, Jeanne. "George Catlett Marshall,"USIA Online, Online. Netscape: 15 March 1999, http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/57.htm

"Hodges, Courtney Hicks" 1998 Britannica Online, Online. Netscape: 15 March 1999: [http://normandy,eb.com./normandy/people html]

"Man of the Year: George C, Marshall: The General." 1944 Time Online.
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"Omar Nelson Bradley." Patch High School, Online,Netscape: 15 March 1999
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"Patton, George S,"1998 Britannica Online. Online.Netscape: 15 March 1999 [http://normandy.eb.com/normandy/people]

Pogue, Forrest C. "George C. Marshall" Groiler Online.Online. Netscape: 15 March 1999, [http://www.groiler,com/wwii/wwii marshall]

Pogue, Forrest C, "George S. Patton, 1999, Groiler Online. Online. Netscape:15 March [http://www.groiler.com/wwii/wwii/patton]

Sulzberger, C,L, The American Heritage Picture History of World War II.New York: American Heritage Bonanta Books, i966.