Section Review


A. William Gregg- once a prosperous Charleston jewelry merchant, zealously advocated industrialization after touring New England's textile mills in 1844. A year later, he started the Graniteville Manufacturing Company, and owned nine thousand spindles and three hundred looms by the late 1840s. Graniteville became a company town, with lumber mills, gristmills, and a machine shop as well as textile mills.

B. Edmund Ruffin- For most of his life, Ruffin was a farmer and a renowned agricultural reformer. Experiments on his farm convinced him that fertilizers, crop rotation, drainage, and good plowing could revitalize the declining soil of his native state. From the 1820s onward, Ruffin published his findings, edited an agricultural journal, lectured, a nd organized agricultural societies. In the 1850s, he became president and commissioner of the Virginia State Agricultural Society. Also fired the first battery against Fort Sumter.

C. Daniel Pratt- Prattville receives its name from the early industrialist Daniel Pratt. Born in New Hampshire in 1799, twenty years later Pratt sailed to Savannah, Georgia, and soon went to work with cotton gin manufacturer Samuel Griswold, becoming Griswold's partner in one year. Deciding to expand their gin manufacturing operation into Alabama, in the fall of 1835 Pratt purchased 1,000 acres of land in the area that is now downtown Prattville. Pratt industrialized the area in less than a dozen years. In addition to the gin factory, he established a saw mill, grist mill, flour mill, cotton factory and an operation that produced sashes, doors and blinds. Pratt's enterprises prospered and so did Prattville.

D. Cristopher G. Memminger- the Confederacy's treasurer.

E. Tredegar Iron Works- the fourth largest producer of iron products in the nation. Founded by Joseph Reid Anderson, it contributed greatly to the Confederate cause during the Civil War.

F. barnyard manure- was used to fertilize the cotton fields in the 1850s. However, the planters didn't keep enough livestock and didn't feed theirs animals enough to produce the sufficient amount of manure necessary. Also, barnyard manure cost about two dollars per ton (in Kentucky in the 1850s) and about four hundred tons were needed to restore one exhausted field.

G. marl- became a popular fertilizer used by planters due to the exhaustion of land. Marled land claimed to increase in value by 200 percent. e. guano- also became a popular fertilizer used by planters. However, not many planters could afford the cost of transporting enough of this
fertilizer to their huge estates, much less the cost of buying and transporting enough of the Peruvian-imported guano.